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The Republic of Kazakhstan

DateTime:2015-02-02 10:02 Views:[10612]

   National Flag: a horizontal rectangle, length and width ratio of 2:1. For the blue flag, in the middle surface is a golden sun, under which is a flying eagle. By the side of a vertical flagpole bars is Kazakh traditional golden motifs. Light blue is the traditional color of the Kazakh people's favorite; the pattern is often seen in the Kazak rugs, clothing, and it shows the intelligence and wisdom of Kazakh people. The golden sun symbolizes light and warmth, and the eagle the courage. Kazakhstan began to adopt this flag from December 1991 after independence.

Emblem: round-shaped. In the middle of the round face there is the Kazakh people felt tent dome pattern, on both sides are the horses, the upper end of a five-pointed star is on the bottom of the sash with the Kazakh words "Kazakhstan."

Major festivals: Nawurezi Festival (March 22, New Year's Day of Kazakhstan); Sovereignty of the Republic Day: (October 25, 1990 through the "Declaration of Sovereignty"); Independence Day: December 16 (1991); Defender of the Fatherland Day: May 7 (1992); Constitution Day: August 30 (Kazakhstan on August 30, 1995 by the Constitution).

State leaders: President Nursultan Nazarbayev. In December 1991, he was elected Kazakhstan's first post-independence president, re-elected in January 1999, December 2005, January 2006 and April 2011. Prime Minister Karim Masimov. He took office in April 2014.

Population: 17,160,000 (January 2014), 140 ethnic groups, mainly including Kazak (64.7%), Russ (23.7%), Ukrainians, Uzbeks, Germanics, Tatars and so on. Kazakh is the national language; Kazakh and Russian are the official languages. More than 50% of residents are Muslim (Sunni), in addition to the Orthodox, Catholic, Buddhist, etc.

Capital: Astana population is 780,000 (2013). Annual maximum temperature is 45-50 above zero degrees Celsius; the lowest temperature is minus 45 degrees Celsius. The lowest temperature in history is minus 52 degrees Celsius.

Astana was originally called Akmola, On December 10, 1997, it officially replaced the capital Almaty, and on May 6, 1998 renamed.

Administrative divisions: 14 states and two municipalities directly under the Central Government, namely, Akmola State, Aktyubinsk State, Almaty State, Atyrau State, South Kazakhstan State, East Kazakhstan State, Jambyl State, West Kazakhstan states, Qaraghandy State, Kyzyl Alda State, Costa Indiana State, Mangystau State, Pavlodar State, North Kazakhstan State, Astana City and Almaty City.

Physical geography: An area of 2,724,900 square kilometers. Located in Central Asia, it is the vastest country in this region. Russia is to its north; Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan to its east; Caspian Sea to its west and China to its east. "Contemporary Silk Road" of the "EurasianContinentalBridge" is across the whole territory of Kazakhstan. It is mainly composed of plains and lowlands; the lowest point of its west is the C Ragoue Basin, 132 meters below sea level; eastern and southeastern Mountains Altai and Tianshan; the plains are mainly located in its west, north and southwest; in the central section are Kazakh hills. Desert and semi-desert area of land occupied 60 percent of Kazakhstan. The main rivers are the Irtysh, the Syr, the Ural, Emba and Ili. There are numerous lakes, about 48,000, such as Caspian Sea, the Aral Sea, Balkhash and Zaysan. 1500 glaciers cover an area of 2070 square kilometers. It is in a serious drought of continental climate, with hot and dry summers and cold and less snow winters. January average temperature is -19 to -4 ; July average temperature is 19 to 26 . Absolute maximum and minimum temperatures are 45 and -45 ; the highest temperature in the desert can be as high 70 . Annual precipitation is less than 100 mm in the desert area, in the north is 300 to 400 mm and in the mountains from 1000 to 2000 mm.

A Brief History: With a long history, in 6-8 century AD, it established a Turkic khanate; in 9-12 century Oguz and Sahara Khanate, in 11-13 century was invaded by Khitan and Mongol Tatars. In the late 15th century, it established the Kazakh Khanate. In the early 16th century it basically formed a modern Kazakh nation. After the mid-19th century, the entire territory of Kazakhstan was under Russian domination. In November 1917 to March 1918 it established Soviet power. On August 26, 1920, it established ownership of the Autonomous Republic of Kyrgyz of Russian Federation; on April 19, 1925 was renamed the KazakhSovietSocialistAutonomousRepublic, and in 1936, as the republics incorporated into the Soviet Union. On October 25, 1990 it passed the Declaration of Sovereignty. On December 10, 1991 was renamed the Republic of Kazakhstan, and on December 16 the same year formally declared independence, and on December 21 joined the CIS.

Relations with China: The formal diplomatic relationship between China and Kazakhstan was established on January 3, 1992. The strategic partnership between China and Kazakhstan began from July 2005. In recent years, the bilateral economic and trade cooperation has been developing promptly. China has become the largest trading partner of Kazakhstan; except Russia, Kazakhstan is the largest one to China in the CIS countries.

In April 2013, President Nursultan Nazarbayev paid a state visit to China. In September, President Xi Jinping officially visited Kazakhstan. The two countries signed a joint declaration on further deepening the comprehensive strategic partnership. President Xi Jinping made a speech at NazarbayevUniversity entitled "Promote Friendship between the People for a Better Future". In May 2014 President Nursultan Nazarbayev visited China and attended the Fourth CICA summit. The two leaders signed a joint declaration, and witnessed the signing of documents on energy, investment and financing and other areas of cooperation.

Sino-Kazakh Oil and Gas Cooperation: In July 2006, the first cross-border oil pipeline between China and Kazakhstan was put into commercial operation. Since then, oil pipeline has been increasing year by year, and making more and more contributions to the economic development of the two countries.

On September 7, 2013, President Xi Jinping and President Nursultan Nazarbayev of Kazakhstan attended the second phase of the first stage of the natural gas pipeline opening ceremony.
  China-Kazakhstan natural gas pipeline is part of the Central Asian gas pipeline segment in
Kazakhstan, the first phase was completed in 2009 ventilation, two pipelines in southern Kazakhstan.

Economy: Before the financial crisis in 10 years, Kazakhstan's economic development is the "golden period". In the period, the GDP average annual growth was around 10%, five times the total economy expansion, foreign trade grew six-fold. Its economic strength accounted two-thirds of the total of the five Central Asian countries. After the financial crisis, Kazakhstan's economic growth rate plummeted. 2008 GDP growth rate dropped to 3.2%. In 2009, in the first half it showed its GDP negative growth, but the momentum into the second half slump was basically curbed, maintaining 1.2% annual GDP growth. From 2010 to 2012, as the world economy recovers and international market demand recovery in international prices of energy and metals such as stability, Kazakhstan economy began a strong rebound, exports began to grow. In addition, the economic recovery of the country's major trading partners, the growth in demand to some extent, also contributed to Kazakhstan exports. The further development of the Customs Union has also contributed greatly to the growth of trade of Kazakhstan.

People's life: In 2012 the per capita nominal monthly wage was about $ 660; GDP per capita $ 12,500.
  Culture: In recent years, the construction of the cultural field in
Kazakhstan has made significant development. Cultural institutions have been steadily increasing in all regions; cultural and visual arts events organized by the number of cultural and leisure facilities infrastructure is developing rapidly. By the end of 2012, Kazakhstan has 40 national cultural and artistic units, about 8,000 units of local arts and cultural organizations.

Education: Its educational foundation is good, and the country almost no illiteracy. It adopts scholarship and rate systems in National colleges. Kazakhstan currently secondary education is 11 years, more than 40 primary and secondary schools use Kazakh, Russian, English trilingual teaching. 3828 primary and secondary schools use teach Kazakh teachinf. 2164 ones do Russia, Kazakhstan bilingual teaching. Kazakhstan has 894 vocational schools, 144 various types of higher education institutions, major universities are: Nazarbayev University, Eurasian National University, Ali Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Kazakhstan Abai National Normal University, National Technical University of Kazakhstan, Kazakh national Agricultural University, Kazakh national Medical University.