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The Republic of Uzbekistan

DateTime:2015-02-02 10:01 Views:[3298]

  National Flag: a horizontal rectangle, length and width ratio of 2:1. From top to bottom are light blue, white and light green tricolor broadband; parallel between the white and light blue, light green there are two red thin strips. On the left side of the light blue, there is a light blue crescent and 12 white five-pointed stars. Uzbekistan became one of the republics of the former Soviet Union in 1924; since 1952, it adopted the flag similar with the former Soviet Union, except that in the middle of the flag, there is a wide blue stripe, and a white thin strip each top and bottom. On August 31, 1991, it passed its national independence of Uzbekistan; from October 11 of the same year it began to enable these flags.

Emblem: rounded. The round face has a lucky bird opening its wings; the background is the rising Sun and green fields. On the top of the round surface is an eight-pointed star. Inside, there is a crescent and a star painted with a five-pointed star. On both sides of circumference of the flag there are ribbons bundle bolls and wheat bound by decorative belts.

Important festivals: New Year: January 1; Nau Andrews Festival (Persian and Turkic-speaking countries’ "Spring Festival "): March 21; Memorial and Honor Day (formerly Victory Day): May 9; Independence Day: September 1 (1991); Constitution Day: December 8.
  State leaders: Karimov was elected in December 1991 and has been re-elected; Prime Minister Shavkat Mirziyayev, worked again in January 2010; Legislative President Dasmuhdova was re-elected in January 2010; President of Senate Sabirov, was re-elected in January 2010.

Physical Geography: A landlocked country in the middle of Central Asia; in its northwest are the Aral Sea, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Afghanistan, covering an area of about 447,400 square kilometers. Its terrain is high in the east and low in the west. Plains and lowland account for 80% of its area. The main rivers are Amu Darya, Syr Darya and Zeravshan.It belongs to a serious drought continental climate. July average temperature is 26 ~ 32 , southern daytime temperatures is often up to 40 ; January average temperature is  -6 ~ -3 . Its northern absolute minimum temperature is -38 . Average annual rainfall in the plains and lowland is 80 to 200 mm, 1000 mm in the mountainous region. They are mostly in winter and spring. Its geography location is perfect, just at crossroads linking the East-West and North-South of transportation of Central Asia. It is the important ancient convergence point of various cultural exchanges active land. Uzbekistan is the famous ancient country of "Silk Road", with a long relationship with China.

Capital: Located in the oasis center of Syr Darya river valley tributary Chirchik, Tashkent is an important center and transportation hub of the ancient East-West trade, the famous "Silk Road" just passes here. It is also the largest city in Central Asia. It is the political, economic, cultural and transportation center of Uzbekistan. According to population, it is the largest in Central Asia Tashkent, and after Moscow, St. Petersburg and Kiev, it is 4th largest city in the Commonwealth of Independent States. Resident population is 2,309,300 (2012). January average temperature is 0 , July average temperature is 28 .

Administrative divisions: The country is composed of an autonomous republic, 12 states and one municipality directly under the Central Government, namely, the Republic of Karakalpakstan, Andijan State, Bukhara State, Jizzakh State, Qashqadaryo State, Navoi state, Namangan State, Samarqand State, Surkhandarya State, Syrdarya State, Tashkent State, Fergana State, Khorezm State, Tashkent City.

Population: 30,075,000 (April 2013), more than 130 ethnic groups. Uzbek accounts for 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 4%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, Kyrgyz 1%, Korean 0.7%. Besides, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uygur, Armenia, Turkey, Belarus and so on. Uzbek is the official language, Russian is the lingua franca. The main religion is Islam, Sunni, as well as the Orthodox.

A Brief History: It has a long history. The Uzbek nation formed from 9 to 11 century. In 13th century it was conquered by Mongol. During 16-18 century, it was called the Khanate of Bukhara, Khiva and Kokand Khanate country. In 1860s to the 1870s, part of the territory was incorporated into Russia. In 1917-1918 it was replaced by Soviet power. In 1924 it founded the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic and became one of 15 former republics of Soviet Union. On August 31, 1991 it declared independence.

Relations with China: On January 2, 1992, China established diplomatic relations with Uzbekistan. Since then, the bilateral high-level exchanges has been increasing frequently, deepen pragmatic cooperation in various fields. In 2012 the two countries established a strategic partnership, and it was a landmark in the history of bilateral relations.
  In September of 2013, President Xi Jinping paid a state visit to
Uzbekistan. The two leaders signed the "Joint Declaration of Sino-Uzbekistan on Further Developing and Deepening the Strategic Partnership" and the "Sino—Uzbekistan Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation." In May 2014 President Karimov officially visited China
. During August 19 to 20, 2014, President of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov paid a state visit to China. The two leaders signed a joint declaration. At present, China has become the second largest trading partner and the largest Uzbek cotton export destination. In 2013, the trade between China and Uzbekistan exceeded 40 billion US dollars for the first time. The bilateral trade volume is expected to reach $ 5 billion in 2017.

Economy: It is rich in natural resources, in particular famous for the production of cotton and gold in the world. Industries of gold, cotton, oil and natural gas play a key role in the country. But its economic structure is single, and manufacturing and processing industries are backward. In the period of the former Soviet Union, it was industrial raw materials and agricultural products supplier.
  In recent years, the
Uzbekistan is steadily promoting economic reform, implementing "import substitution" and "export-oriented" economic development strategy, and the privatization of state-owned enterprises and non-nationalization, so as to attract foreign investment and develop medium and small enterprises, and gradually achieve energy and food self-sufficiency. It has been remained a stable macro-economic and financial situation, achieving a rapid economic development. In 2012,  Uzbekistan economy has maintained a rapid and steady growth, GDP grew by 8.2%, industrial growth of 7.7%, 7.0% agriculture, construction 11.5%, 13.9% retailing, service industry 14.2%, export 11.6%. The state budget surplus amounts for 0.4% GDP and the inflation rate did not exceed expectations.

Tourism Industry: It has more than 4000 historical, religious, architectural monuments, which are mainly located in Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva and other cities. In 2012, it received a total of 51.7 million foreign tourists. (Uzbekistan State Statistics Committee data)

Education: It implements 11-year compulsory education, education funding accounts for about 10 percent of the national budget. At present, it has more than 60 universities, nearly 20 million students, and faculty 20,000 faculty members. There are more than 450 specialized secondary schools, nearly 300,000 students; there are more than 10,000 primary and secondary schools, 5.6 million students. The total number of teachers in various schools nationwide amounts for 460,000. More than 300 students from over 20 countries are studying in various universities in Uzbekistan. Its famous universities are as follows, University of World Economy and Diplomacy, TashkentStateUniversity, Comprehensive Technical University of Tashkent, TashkentMedicalUniversity, World Language and CultureUniversity, OrientalCollege.

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