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The Republic of Turkmenistan

DateTime:2015-02-02 10:00 Views:[4326]

   National Flag: a horizontal rectangle, length and width ratio of approximately 5:3. It is for dark green, by the pole there is a vertical belt is on the flag. In addition, it is lined with five carpet pattern colors from top to bottom. In the middle of the front surface there is a crescent and five stars, the moon and the stars are white. Green is the traditional color of the Turkmen people; crescent symbolizes a bright future; five stars mean the five human organ functionsnamely, vision, hearing, smell, taste, touch. The points of the five stars symbolizes five states of matter in the universe, namely, solid, liquid, gas, crystalline and plasma; the carpet pattern symbolizes the traditional ideas and religious beliefs of the Turkmen people. In October 1924, Turkmenistan became one of the republics of the former Soviet Union. Since 1953, it began to adopt the national flag as the one of the former Soviet Union but plus two blue stripes surface. In October, 1991, it declared independence, and began to use the flag till now.

Important holidays: National Flag Day, Feb. 19; Independence Day, October 27 (1991); neutral day, December 12.

Physical Geography: It is landlocked country in the southwest of the Central Asia, with an area of 491,200 square kilometers. To its north and northeast are Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, to its west Azerbaijan and Russia through Caspian Sea, to the south is Iran, to southeast Afghanistan. Most of its territory is the lowland, and plains are below 200 meters, 80% of the territory is covered by the KarakumDesert. In the south and west are KopetDagMountains and Parrot Meads mountains. The main rivers are the Amu Darya, Tejen, Murghab River and Art Lek, they are mainly located in the east.The Karakum Canal, with a length of 1450km, traverses its southeast, covering about 300,000 hectares of irrigation area. It belongs to a strong continental climate, which is one of the driest regions in the world.

Capital: Ashgabat; population 680,000. January average temperature is 4.4 , and July average temperature of 27.7 .

Population: 6,836,000 (September 2012). It has more than 120 ethnic groups, in which Turkmen accounts for 94.7%. The vast majority of residents are Muslims (Sunni), Turkmen is the official language, and Russian is the lingua franca. Before 1927, Turkmen used Arabic alphabetic writing, after that it began to adopt the Latin alphabet, and from 1940 it used the Cyrillic alphabet. Residents are Muslim (Sunni), Russian and Armenian Orthodox.

State leaders: President Berdymukhamedov was elected in February 2007 and took the office till today. The late President Niyazov, was elected in October 1990, in June 1992 was reelected. In December 1999, the Joint Parliamentary Committee and the people of Turkmenistan passed a resolution authorizing Niyazov with"indefinite exercise of presidential power." In February 2005, Niyazov announced the Turkmen people to resign his lifetime presidency treatment. On December 21, 2006, he died aged 66.

Administrative divisions: besides the capital Ashgabat, the country is divided into five states, 16 cities and 46 districts. Five states are Akhal, Balkan, Lebap, Mare and Dasoguz.

A Brief History: Historically, Persians, Macedonians, Turks, Arabs, Mongol Tatars had been established countries in this region. In 15th century, the Turkmen nation basically formed. In 1917, it established the Soviet power, and joined the Soviet Union on October 27, 1924. On October 27, 1991, it declared independence, and on December 21 of the same year, joined CIS, and it became a member of the United Nations on March 2, 1992. On December 12, 1995, the 50th session of the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution recognizing Turkmenistan is a permanently neutral country.

Relations with China: On December 27, 1991, Chinese Government recognized independence of Turkmenistan. On January 6, 1992, Turkmenistan established diplomatic relations with China. Since the establishment of diplomatic relations, high-level visits between the two countries, bilateral cooperation in various fields have been increasingly growing. In April 2006, President Niyazov paid a state visit to China, the two sides signed a joint statement. In September 2013, President Xi Jinping made a state visit to Turkmenistan. The two countries established a strategic partnership. In May 2014, President of Turkmenistan Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov paid a state visit to China. The leaders of the two countries signed a joint statement on further developing and deepening the strategic partnership between China and Turkmenistan.

The bilateral trade between Turkmenistan and China in 2012 amounted to $ 10.3 billion. China has become the largest trading partner of Turkmenistan.

Economy: Turkmenistan is rich in mineral resources, especially oil, natural gas, Glauber's salt, iodine, non-ferrous and rare metals. According to the official information released by Turkmenistan, its oil and gas reserves account for 6.8 billion tons and 26.2 trillion cubic meters, industrial reserves are 213 million tons and 2.7 trillion cubic meters, ranking in the world. Oil and gas production is the pillar industry of Turkmenistan. Agriculture is mainly cotton and wheat.

Since independence, Turkmenistan has always been devoting to economic stability and rapid development and accelerating the transition to market economies. In 2003, in its strategic development to 2020, Turkmenistan pointed out that it would build into a world power with guaranteed high living standards and social and economic indicators. In 2008, its gross domestic product amounted for about $ 15.4 billion.

Education: In the recent years, the framework of providing large-scale state support through the "Education Law of Turkmenistan" pointed out that in all regions of the country, Turkmenistan implements the new education system for children's pre-school institutions, secondary schools and colleges and universities so as to improve the construction of quality and efficiency, and widespread adoption the most modern information and communication technology, equipped with the most modern and efficient schools and computer technology and multimedia teaching equipment.

Turkmenistan currently operates 1,741 schools, 848 pre-school institutions, 23 colleges, 127 vocational education in elementary schools, 27 technical schools and secondary vocational training institutions. According to “the Plan of President of Turkmenistan on Improving the Social and Living Conditions of the Residents in the Villages, Towns and Districts before 2020 " pre-school institutions will be increased to 428 countries, the number of secondary schools to 328.